WITT #31: Dari Tuti, Agni hingga Baiq Nuril, Sampai Kapan Korban Selalu Disalahkan?

Halo, maaf banget ya udah lama gak nulis “What I’m Thinking of Today? (WITT)” setelah sekian lama. Sebenarnya buanyaaak banget sih yang dipikirin setiap hari, apalagi akhir-akhir ini. Tapi yaa, lagi agak ke-distract ngurusin pindahan, surat-surat administrasi, dan belajar bahasa Perancis! Yaaays…

Jadi, sebenarnya kali ini saya mau mencoba untuk berbagi cerita sedikit dan menyampaikan pendapat soal beberapa isu yang cukup panas belakangan ini. Perasaan tuh kayak campur aduk sebenarnya, apalagi beberapa waktu belakangan. Energi dan pikiran saya terkuras habis dengan berbagai pemberitaan mengenai eskalasi kekerasan seksual yang dialami oleh perempuan-perempuan Indonesia. Mulai dari beberapa kasus pelecehan seksual yang dialami oleh perempuan dengan supir ojek/taksi online sebagai pelakunya, kasus hukuman mati yang dialami oleh Tuti, buruh migran Indonesia yang menjadi TKW di Arab Saudi, kasus pemerkosaan Agni, mahasiswi UGM, hingga kasus pelecehan seksual terhadap Baiq Nuril.

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Dan the saddest thing, sudah mereka jadi korban, mereka pula yang disalahkan bahkan dihukum lebih berat! Belum lagi ya makin sedih kalau membaca komentar-komentar, julidan dan tudingan yang datang dari masyarakat a.k.a netizen kepada perempuan sebagai korban, yang seringkali bikin mata dan hati saya sakit ketika membacanya.

Sakit banget.

Can we just stop blaming the victims? They all sure don’t want to experience sexual violence, harassment or even rape, once in her life.

Astrid Maharani c

So do we. So do YOU.

Mungkin ada yang sempat membaca beberapa pemberitaan akhir-akhir ini mengenai beberapa kasus yang sudah saya sebutkan diatas. Saya tidak akan membicarakan detail mengenai beberapa laporan yang sempat saya baca di beberapa portal media dan juga beberapa laporan dari Komnas Perempuan sendiri.

Ada yang tahu cerita soal Tuti Tursilawati? Buruh migran perempuan asal Majalengka yang berniat untuk mendapatkan pekerjaan dan kehidupan yang lebih baik dengan bekerja di Arab Saudi, ternyata malah bernasib sebaliknya. Pada tanggal 29 Oktober 2018 lalu, ia di eksekusi mati oleh Pemerintah Arab Saudi atas tuduhan telah membunuh ayah majikannya di tempat ia bekerja. Ia pun ditangkap sehari setelah kasus pembunuhan tersebut terjadi. Pembunuhan yang ia lakukan semata-mata karena ia ingin membela dirinya yang selalu diperlakukan tidak adil dan mengalami kekerasan seksual. Ia bekerja selama 8 bulan dengan sisa gaji tidak dibayar selama 6 bulan, belum lagi ia sering mendapatkan pelecehan dan kekerasan seksual saat ia bekerja. Setelah membunuh majikannya, Tuti pun kabur ke Mekkah dengan membawa perhiasan dan uang sebesar 31.500 riyal Arab Saudi milik majikannya, ternyata dalam perjalanannya, Tuti diperkosa oleh 9 pemuda Arab Saudi yang juga merampok perhiasan dan uang yang dibawanya. Setelah menjalani hukuman penjara selama 8 tahun, berbagai upaya telah dilakukan oleh Pemerintah Indonesia dalam rangka membebaskan Tuti dari hukuman. Namun, disayangkan Tuti harus di eksekusi mati, bahkan tanpa notifikasi kepada pihak KBRI di Arab Saudi.

Ini hanyalah satu dari beberapa kasus ekeskusi mati yang dialami oleh buruh migran Indonesia.

Gak habis pikir memang… Kenapa ya sebegitu murahnya nyawa seseorang saat ini? Apakah pembunuhan juga lebih baik dibalas dengan pembunuhan? Apakah mengeksekusi mati terpidana pembunuhan akan menghentikan seseorang untuk membunuh orang lain? Kapan ya kita (dalam hal ini, Indonesia) bisa sedikit lebih humanis dalam memberikan hukuman kepada terpidana dan sedikit mengesampaingkan atau menghilangkan azas ‘menghukum sebagai upaya balas dendam’ atau alih-alih memberikan efek jera kepada para pelaku kejahatan? Bisakah kita sedikit saja, melihat dan mendengar keluh kesah dari kacamata korban terlebih dahulu tanpa harus menghakimi?

Yang lebih menyedihkan lagi ketika suatu negara bisa dengan mudahnya menghilangkan nyawa seseorang tanpa berusaha memahami akar permasalahan yang terjadi sebenarnya.

Minggu lalu saya sempat baca respon dari Duta Besar Arab Saudi di Indonesia terkait dengan kasus Tuti ini. Rasa sedih, marah, muak hingga tidak bisa berkata-kata lagi, adalah hal yang saya rasakan saat itu. Kok ya bisa beliau mengeluarkan pernyataan seakan-akan he is the purest human being?

Saat ini, lagi-lagi Indonesia merasa gamang dengan situasi yang ada. Sulit memang, ketika Indonesia ingin membela warga negaranya sendiri yang terpidana dan divonis hukuman mati di Negara lain, tetapi di saat yang sama, Indonesia sendiri masih menerapkan hukuman mati sebagai hukum positif.

Gimana mau ngebela, wong kita juga masih hukum mati orang? Kalau begini, gimana kita mau membela warga negara sendiri yang terkena vonis hukuman mati di negara lain?

Juga dengan kasus pemerkosaan Agni (bukan nama sebenarnya), lagi-lagi perempuan jadi korban, disalahkan, dan dihukum lebih berat dibandingkan dengan pelaku pemerkosaan, bahkan tanpa memedulikan hak-hak Agni sebagai perempuan yang telah menjadi korban dari kejahatan seksual tersebut.

Agni diperkosa oleh HS (inisial) pada saat keduanya sedang melakukan KKN bersama di Pulau Seram, Maluku pada bulan Juli 2017 lalu. Setelah membiarkan kasus tersebut beberapa waktu, Agni pun baru mulai berani untuk melaporkan kasusnya ke pihak kampus, namun karena lambannya pihak kampus menyelesaikan kasus dan pihak UGM menganggap bahwa kasus kekerasan seksual yang dialami Agni tidak termasuk pelanggaran berat sehingga tidak perlu penanganan yang serius, akhirnya Agni memberanikan diri untuk melaporkan kepada pihak kepolisian. Bahkan beberapa pihak universitas turut menyalahkan Agni, sebagai penyintas. Rasa aman dan terlindungi oleh pihak universitas pun tidak ia dapatkan, seakan-akan ia lah yang terus disalahkan.

Saya sempat membaca beberapa cuitan dari public figure yang giat dalam isu reproduksi seksual dan gender @catwomanizer: “Prinsipnya, pemaksaan kehendak terhadap seseorang tanpa persetujuan jelas tidak bisa dibenarkan, apapun alasannya. Jadi bukan perkara korban yang tidak bisa ‘menjaga dirinya’, tidak melawan, apalagi terkait dengan pakaian yang dikenakan korban.”

BUKAN. Jadi, stop untuk mengatur perempuan untuk mengenakan sesuatu yang dinilai sopan, tapi kita seakan-akan ‘memaklumi’ otak dan napsu liar kaum lelaki.

Yaa, namanya juga laki-laki, nafsunya lebih besar daripada perempuan.

Enggak, itu tetap tidak dibenarkan. If you really think that way, you have supported what-so-called the double standard of sexual behaviour. An understanding that from the point of view, men have an active sexual role while women have a passive sexual role. Hal ini sangat buruk karena standar ganda seksual ini sudah lama diasosiasikan dengan subordinasi tradisional bagi perempuan dan jelas sangat stereotip terhadap perempuan, when men engage in sexual activities will be judged as something positive, while women will always be judged negatively.

Jadi, jangan melulu menyalahkan penampilan perempuan, tanpa meminta kaum lelaki juga seharusnya bisa menahan nafsu dan lebih menggunakan akal sehatnya. Percuma kan, di sekolahin tinggi-tinggi sama orang tua, kalau perilaku seperti binatang?.

Dan, terakhir, yang baru saja terkuak dan masih terjadi lagi-lagi di ranah pendidikan.

Pada tahun 2012 lalu, kasus pelecehan dan kekerasan seksual secara verbal menimpa Ibu Baiq Nuril. Eks guru honorer di SMAN 7 Mataram, NTB yang kini terkena hukuman enam bulan penjara dan didenda sebesar Rp 500 juta setelah dinyatakan bersalah oleh Mahkamah Agung karena menyebarkan rekaman suara yang bermuatan kesusilaan. Padahal beliau juga sebenarnya adalah korban pelecehan dan kekerasan seksual yang ia terima dari Kepala Sekolah, tempat ia bekerja. Akhirnya ia pun merekam seluruh percakapan tersebut, dan tanpa sepengetahuan dan sekehendaknya, rekaman tersebut menyebar. Setelah ia di vonis bebas tahun 2017 lalu oleh PN Mataram, ternyata MA malah berkata lain dan memberikan hukuman tersebut kepada Ibu Nuril.

Meanwhile… yes, you right. Pelaku kekerasan seksual tersebut malah melenggang merasa menang dan masih memiliki kuasa di sekolahnya.

Hal-hal diatas benar-benar mengecewakan dan semakin membuat penyintas dan korban kekerasan seksual di luar sana akan semakin takut dan bungkam, ketika ia berusaha untuk membela diri dengan caranya masing-masing, karena lagi-lagi dan pasti masyarakat akan lebih menghakimi korban.

Parahnya, hukum kita belum cukup mumpuni untuk melindungi korban kekerasan seksual, khususnya dalam mengadili perempuan yang berhadapan dengan hukum. 

Pelecehan atau kekerasan seksual bisa terjadi di mana saja, baik tempat kerja, sekolah, rumah, atau ruang publik. Bagi teman-teman yang mendengar atau mengalami sendiri kekerasan seksual (apapun bentuknya) dan merasa takut untuk menyampaikan atau menceritakannya kepada pihak-pihak terkait, sila menghubungi:

– Komnas Perempuan (021-3903963/komnasperempuan.go.id), 
– Lembaga Bantuan Hukum Apik (021-87797289/apiknet@centrin.net.id/Twitter: @lbhapik), 
– Koalisi Perempuan Indonesia (021-7918-3221 /021-7918-3444/koalisiperempuan.or.id), 
– Bantuan psikologis untuk korban ke Yayasan Pulih (021-788-42-580/yayasanpulih.org)

Quick Review from #HRC37

At the Human Rights Council, the High Commissioner spotlights more than 60 countries which have seen recent significant improvements – or negative trends. During his oral statements, Indonesia has been mentioned of this 60 countries.

“The Government of Indonesia has made progress in recent years in upholding human rights. I urge the authorities to address my concerns about increasing hostility towards religious and sexual minorities, which appears to be a recent and essentially foreign import to a traditionally tolerant nation. I encourage deeper consideration of the Faith for Rights Declaration of March 2017, which draws together commitments common to many religions and beliefs, and notes that “violence in the name of religion defeats its basic foundations: mercy and compassion.”

Read his full statement here.

Infographic designed by: Astrid Maharani

Non Discrimination Principle

The general principle of non-discrimination is a fundamental element of international human rights law as written in Article 2 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR). The right to equality and non-discrimination is recognised in Article 2 UDHR and is a cross-cutting issue of concern in other UN human rights instruments. Human rights instruments prohibit discrimination on several grounds. Article 2 UDHR prohibits discrimination on the following 10 grounds: race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinions, national or social origin, property, birth and other status. The term ‘other status’ has an open-ended meaning; some grounds not explicitly mentioned, such as age, gender, disability, nationality and sexual orientation could also be considered prohibited grounds.

The Universal Declaration of Human Rights is a milestone document in the history of human rights. Drafted by representatives with different legal and cultural backgrounds from all regions of the world, the Declaration was proclaimed by the United Nations General Assembly in Paris on 10 December 1948 as a common standard of achievement for all peoples and all nations.

This year has marked the 70th Year of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) since its published on 10 December 1948 in Paris, France. As an NGOs working on human rights issues, Human Rights Working Group (HRWG) are happy to join the campaign #StandUp4HumanRights to celebrate the 70th Year of the UDHR this year.
Infographic designed by Astrid Maharani

What does it feel to be a women pedestrians in Jakarta?

Yes, maybe for some of you who ever been visited Jakarta or at least read any news in online social media ever heard about this kind of issue. Jakarta is a big city, yes even almost as big as Singapore, let say.

In some of the Southeast Asian countries, we might have this common problem about pedestrian in the capital city. Jakarta is one of the big city in Indonesia, which half of its people either using private transportations (like, car or motorcycle) and public transportation (bus, the commuter line, taxi, angkotojek online, etc).  According to the Jakarta Post, as of 2017, there are about 4.8 million cars in Jakarta and about 13.6 million motorcycles.

Yes, it’s big numbers, right?

I actually one of Transjakarta users in which also quite often to access pedestrian road. Transjakarta itself is the name of bus company which own by our local government here. I am working in the central part of Jakarta, where some part of the area has very good pedestrian way, but the other part still worst even not accessible to walk just because of there is a lot of development nearby or hijacked by motorcycle users.

This is one of the problems to walk in a pedestrian way in Jakarta. A lot of motorcycles users take pedestrian way to avoid a heavy traffic jam on the road. Besides that, you will see a lot of food stalls or trucks parked in pedestrian, in which you will feel either annoyed by them or tempted to buy what they sell (but anyway, it’s unhealthy). There are just a few problems which commonly happens in Jakarta, but actually, the main problem which happens to women pedestrians even far beyond of it.

This week, to be exact on 22nd of January is known as National Pedestrian Day in Indonesia. And I would like to share my experiences also maybe a lot of women experiences dealing with the pedestrian road in Jakarta.

Cat-calling. Girls, be prepared for this! You might hear a lot of guys on the street will tease you by whistle or call you with ‘Mba.. Mba’ or even ‘Neng, neng..’ its a nickname to call girl like Miss, in English. They even often look at you from head to toe, just because you wearing a casual cloth which they thought intentionally to see their attention.

Yes, it sucks, I know.

Sexual harassment. I never had this kind of experience, but I knew some friends or heard some girls who experienced this kind of thing. Last year I heard, there was a woman was sexually assaulted in one of crossing bridge in Pondok Indah, it’s nearby in a place where I live. In Indonesia, this kind of assaults can take place even in a very crowded area, even also in a daylight. Unfortunately, in Indonesia, it is such an epidemic and we still don’t have legal protection for sexual harassment.

For women, walking in a big city like Jakarta absolutely will face double risk. First, you never knew when you walk on the sidewalks, you could be raided by motorcycle users. Secondly, you can also be sexually abused.

According to the Thomson Reuters Foundation report frankly said Jakarta had the fifth-most dangerous public transportation system for women in the world and the second in Asian countries, after New Delhi, India.

I don’t mean to make my readers feel worried or afraid to visit Jakarta after you guys reading this. But I want to raise this issue to be our common concern and working together to stop sexual harassment… everywhere! And please, also respect our rights as a woman as well as a pedestrian.

 

 

 

 

Perempuan, bersemangatlah! Raihlah pendidikan, pekerjaan dan mimpi besar mu, walaupun setinggi langit, seluas samudera dan sejauh-jauhnya kamu dapat mengarunginya. Teruskan dan raihlah pendidikan mu! Teruslah berkarya dan bekerja, bukan hanya kamu ingin “diperbudak” oleh sistem, tetapi karena kamu yakin kamu dapat melakukan perubahan. Kemajuan. Kebahagiaan. Juga, kesetaraan. Jangan hanya mengumpat dibalik daster dan kerumunan bumbu dapur saja dengan dalih “ini kodrat kami sebagai perempuan, sebagai istri dari suami saya, juga ibu dari anak-anak kami”.

Perempuan, kalian memiliki hak yang sama, hak untuk melanjutkan serta meraih pendidikan yang layak dan pekerjaan yang kalian impikan. Perempuan, tiada salah jika kalian memiliki sejuta mimpi dan cita-cita. Tiada salah juga jika kalian ingin menjadi ibu rumah tangga untuk suami dan anak-anak kalian. Tetapi kalian juga masa depan bangsa yang memiliki sejuta kesempatan untuk memberikan sumbangsih kepada negeri ini. Maka dari itu, perempuan, (terus) bersemangatlah!

“Selamat Hari Perempuan Internasional bagi seluruh perempuan hebat di Indonesia!”

What You Really Need to Know About Feminism

It’s very inspiring every time I read some articles or books which talking about feminism, where most of the times people always seems pessimistic when they’re talking about feminism itself. It’s always full of debates when it comes to people who admit themselves as a feminist. Recently, I have read a simple, understandable and first-thing-first you really need to know about feminism when I was reading an article wrote in Magdalene. Where they are trying to explore the ten biggest misconceptions about feminism which you should know.

Here they are:

1. Feminists hate men: This one is the oldest and most tiresome fallacy on feminism. Feminism is a movement and ideology that champions equality for women in political, economic, cultural, personal and social spheres. It has never been an ideology of hate.

2. To achieve equality, feminism must emasculate men: Achieving gender equality does require deconstructing masculinity, but it is not the same as emasculating the male sex. In its hundreds of years of history (even before the word “feminism” was coined) the movement has cultivated a tradition of deep contemplation and rethinking of the social construct of genders as well as gender dynamics. It is supposed to actually improve gender relations, not strengthen one sex at the expense of the other.

3. Feminism only helps women: Feminism doesn’t just liberate women; it also liberates men by breaking down the standards put in place for women and men by the society. Feminism is about changing self-limiting gender roles, sexual norms and sexist practices. Men have the freedom to explore life beyond the rigid boundaries of traditional masculinity. Also feminism believes in equal access to education, which probably enabled your mom to get her university degree and get a job way back then, giving you and your brothers better opportunities in life. With education, women tend to make better life choices, resulting in healthier and more optimally functioning families and communities.

María María Acha-Kutscher illustrates women exercising their voices in political struggles. She says her work focuses on the woman, on “her story, the...:

4. Only women can be feminists: Feminists are committed to addressing daily problems like domestic violence, rape and sexual assaults, unequal pay, sexual objectification, etc. The best way to address these problems is to involve men, raising male employees’ awareness of gender sensitivity, teaching young boys to respect girls, getting fathers to share the housework loads and be more involved in raising their kids, and so many other ways.

5. To be a feminist you must be an atheist: While it’s true that some religions have highly patriarchal perspectives and perpetuate age-old discriminative practices against women, it doesn’t mean there’s no room for improvements. There have been many who bring women-friendly interpretations into religious teachings.

In Indonesia, we have this feminist ulema and this Muslim scholar and a few others. You don’t have to ditch your religion to believe that women are entitled to the same rights as men.

6. Feminists don’t believe in marriage: How silly. A lot of feminists are happily married. As long as a marriage provides personal, legal and social values to the two people involved, there’s no reason to reject the institution of marriage. What feminists are against is when the society values marriage as a “better place” for women, socially punishing those who are not married or divorced, and when a marriage is treated as a way to control women. Also, true feminists believe legal marriage should be allowed for all sexual preferences and gender expressions (yes, we believe in same-sex marriage!).

7. True feminists don’t wear bras and makeup: Rubbish! Feminism is about giving women choices – not limiting them – of self-expression. Can’t go out without your high heels? By all means, wear them. Fancy that little black dress? Why not. But expressing yourself in a traditional expression of femininity is a choice, not an obligation, and it should not define you as a person.  Personally, I like looking good, but I hate to waste too much time and energy on doing it, so I hardly wear make-up, save maybe brow powder and lip-gloss.

8. Feminism is a western concept: To be honest, this has been one of the main self-criticism within the feminist movement in the past: that feminism, the movement and ideology, is Eurocentric and dictated by white middle-class women. It was also criticised for its tendency to overlook class, caste, religion, ethnic bias and racial discrimination that complicate the idea of gender.  However feminism has long existed in non-western part of the world, from South America, Asia to Africa, though with slightly adjusted focuses according to the local contexts.

9. Feminism hasn’t changed for ages: Wrong! The first wave of feminism in the 19th hundred and early 20th centuries focused on civil and political equality, mainly women’s rights to vote. The second wave, which began in the 1960s all through the 1980s, widened the goals to include issues of sexuality, family, the workplace, reproductive rights and other legal inequalities. The third-wave feminists broadened the debates to focus on ideas like queer theory, abolishing gender role expectation and stereotypes. The current awareness in feminism – what is arguably sometimes called the fourth-wave feminism – embraces the idea of “intersectionality”, the multiple, interlocking oppressions of race, sex, sexuality and class. It is a movement and awareness that advocate people to make space for those who are marginalised politically, economically and socially because of their gender, sexual preferences, race and class.

10. There’s no need for feminism now because women are equal to men already: This cannot be more wrong.  Let’s revisit the women’s lib’s demands in the 1970s: The first four of them are equal pay, equal opportunity to education and work, a guarantee of their reproductive rights, and an end to violence or sexual coercion regardless of marital status.

Now let’s look at the facts today: According to a report by the UN’s International Labour Organization, women across the world earn only 77 percent of the amount paid to men, a figure that has improved only three percentage points in the past 20 years.  On top of that, many jobs are still not friendly to mothers, and top leadership posts in companies and governments are still overwhelmingly held by men. Secondly, in many developing countries including Indonesia, the number of girls dropping out of school is higher than boys because they are seen by parents as not worth the economic investment. Third, though contraceptives are widely available now, many countries (Indonesia including) still allow child marriage, which perpetuates domestic violence and poverty. Fourth, rape culture is actually thriving both in developed and developing countries alike. In countries like Indonesia, the law and law enforcers on sex violence cases are hardly on women’s side.

In connection to this, I will also show you the remake of Spice Girls video clip which promotes about the gender equality in SDGs as one of UN campaign specifically for women:

#WhatIreallyreallywant

Read more the original article here.